People

Ayelet Shachar

Ayelet Shachar (FRSC) is the R.F. Harney Chair and Director of the Ethnic, Immigration and Pluralism Studies Program at the Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy at the University of Toronto, where she is Professor of Law, Political Science, and Global Affairs. Previously, Shachar was Director at the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity. At Goethe University Frankfurt, she is affiliated with the Faculty of Law and the Normative Orders Research Centre. An award-winning author, she has published extensively on the topics of citizenship, global inequality, competitive migration regimes, cultural diversity and gender equality. Her research is motivated by the need to develop new legal principles to address some of the most pressing issues of our time: how to live together in diverse societies, how to grant rights to those who lack formal access to membership, and how to tame the ever-expanding reach of borders and migration control in a world of persistent inequality.

Ayelet Shachar won the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize—Germany’s most prestigious research award for her groundbreaking work on citizenship and the legal frameworks of accommodation in multicultural societies.

Contact: office-shachar@uni-frankfurt.de

Selected publications
Books

2020. The Shifting Border: Legal Cartographies of Migration and Mobility, Critical Powers Series, Manchester University Press

2017. The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship, Oxford University Press

2009. The Birthright Lottery: Citizenship and Global Inequality, Harvard University Press

2001. Multicultural Jurisdictions: Cultural Differences and Women’s Rights, Cambridge University Press

Papers

2021. Unequal Access: Wealth as Barrier and Accelerator to Citizenship, Citizenship Studies, 25 (4), 543-563

2020. Beyond Open and Closed Borders: The Grand Transformation of Citizenship, Jurisprudence, 11, 1-27

2019. Spatial Statism (with Ran Hirschl), International Journal of Constitutional Law, 17 (2), 387–438

2018. The Marketization of Citizenship in an Age of Restrictionism, Ethics & International Affairs, 32, 3-13

2014. On Citizenship, States, and Markets (with Ran Hirschl), Journal of Political Philosophy, 22, 231-257

2012. Demystifying Culture, I-CON International Journal of Constitutional Law, 10, 429-448

2011. Picking Winners: Olympic Citizenship and the Global Race for Talent, Yale Law Journal, 120, 2088-2139   

2011. Earned Citizenship: Property Lessons for Immigration Reform, Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities, 23, 110-158

2008. Privatizing Diversity: A Cautionary Tale from Religious Arbitration in Family Law, Theoretical Inquiries in Law, 9(2), 573-607

Book Chapters

2013. Entangled: Family, Religion and Human Rights, in Cindy Holder and David Reidy (des), Human Rights: The Hard Questions, Cambridge University Press, 115-135



Benjamin Boudou

Benjamin Boudou works on borders in democracy and the norms that govern the inclusion and exclusion of migrants. He works on the representation of non-citizens and the contentious mobilizations of values such as sanctuary, civility, hospitality or solidarity.

He previously was senior research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, postdoctoral research fellow at the Center for International Studies at Sciences Po, and Fox international fellow at Yale University. He is the editor of the French journal of political theory Raisons Politiques.

Contact: boudou@em.uni-frankfurt.de

Selected publications
Books

2018. Le dilemme des frontières: Éthique et politique de l’immigration. Editions de l’EHESS

2017. Politique de l’hospitalité: Une généalogie conceptuelle. CNRS Editions

Papers

2021. Migration and the critique of ‘state thought’: Abdelmalek Sayad as a political theoristEuropean Journal of Political Theory, online first

2021. Beyond the Welcoming Rhetoric: Hospitality as a Principle of Care for the Displaced, Essays in Philosophy, 22(1/2), 85-101

2021. Sacred Welcomes: How Religious Reasons, Structures, and Interactions Shape Refugee Advocacy and Settlement (with Hans Leaman and Max Scholz), Migration and Society, 4(1), 100-109

2020. Migration and the Duty of Hospitality: A Genealogical SketchTransitions: Journal of Transient Migration, 4(2), 257-274

2016. What is political theory for?Raisons politiques, 64, 7-27

2012. The Crossing of the Political: Derrida and Ricœur between the Purity of Philosophy and the Tragic Dimension of ActionRaisons politiques, 45, 211-233

Chapters

2019. Hospitality in Sanctuary Cities, in Sharon M. Meagher, Samantha Noll, Joseph S. Biehl (eds), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the City, Routledge, 279-290

2018. Language proficiency and migration: An argument against testing (with A. v. Busekist), in M. Gazzola, T. Templin, B.-A. Wickström (eds), Language Policy and Linguistic Justice: Economic, Philosophical and Sociolinguistic Approaches, Berlin, Springer, 189-208

Book reviews

2020. An Urban Turn in the Ethics of Migration? Review of Avner de Shalit, Cities and Immigrants: Political and Moral Dilemmas in the New Era of Migration, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2018, Raisons politiques, 79, 2020, 109-121
Research projects
Heroic Citizenship
This project examines the ethical, political and legal issues of “heroism” as a condition for citizenship acquisition. I examine situations where fast-track citizenship, long-term residence permits or immediate naturalization have been offered as a reward for exceptional acts of selfless and risky altruism. I aim to answer four questions: a political one (what are the ideological and political conditions for heroic citizenship to be possible?), a legal one (how is law mobilized to allow such exceptional measures?), a conceptual one (how does heroic citizenship affect the conceptualization of citizenship through notions of deservingness, performance, civic virtues of altruism and sacrifice?), and a normative one (is heroic citizenship desirable?).

Representing Non-Citizens
This project explores the normative relevance of the representation of non-citizens in democracies. I argue that representation within nation-states constitutes a realistic institutionalisation of the All-Affected Principle, allowing justificatory practices towards non-citizens and establishing political institutions that can realise the ideal of inclusion of all externally affected individuals. I analyze electoral, non-electoral and surrogate forms of representation of affected interests that satisfy both the cosmopolitan concern for the equal consideration of interests and the statist defence of a territorially and civically bounded demos. I assess piecemeal implementations of representation practices, namely reciprocal representation, ombudspersons, self-appointed representatives and deliberative and advocacy groups. Gradual and pluralised means of representation constitute necessary and feasible first steps to consider affected interests and offer an alternative route to an all-or-nothing defence of inclusion as national enfranchisement. 

Eva-Maria Schäfferle

Working as a postdoc at Goethe University Frankfurt, Eva-Maria Schäfferle is particularly interested in questions of borders, citizenship and migration as well as in transnational and cosmopolitan theories of democracy.

She previously held positions at the Université Grenoble-Alpes and Sciences Po Paris and was awarded the Wilhelm-Bender-Prize for her dissertation Modern Metics. EU Citizenship and the Boundaries of the Demos.

Contact: Schaefferle@soz.uni-frankfurt.de

Selected publications
2021. Book review of Die Grenzen des Demos. Mitgliedschaftspolitik aus post-souveräner Perspektive, by S. Ahlhaus, in: Politische Vierteljahreszeitschrift, 62(2), 371-373.

2017. ‘Institutions for Future Generations’La Revue Nouvelle, 72 (8), 77-82.

2017. ‘Souveränität und Legitimität des heranwachsenden europäischen Demos: Die Exklusivität der Europäischen Bürgerschaft auf dem Prüfstand‘, in: Grossman, Emiliano and Felix Heidenreich (eds.), Konstellationen der Souveränität in Europa, Berlin: LIT Verlag, 87-110.
Research project
Citizenship and Transnational Democracy
In my current research I seek to explore new avenues for strengthening the political voice of migrants. Migrants or non-citizens are subject to foreign states’ laws in multiple ways. They are bound by their immigration, integration and naturalization rules, which significantly restrict their personal freedom and choice of life plans. In contrast to citizens, though, they are deprived of political voice and influence. Seeking to overcome the political voicelessness of migrants, I’m particularly interested in new forms of democratic decision-making beyond the nation state. Can emerging forms of transnational democracy bridge the gap between national realities on the one hand and cosmopolitan ideals on the other? Can they help to remedy the problem of under-inclusiveness that modern nation states currently face? If so, how must transnational democracy be designed to ensure that the needs and interests of migrants are adequately represented in the decision-making process?